Biochemistry experiment 4A and 4B – Time course of an enzyme catalysed reaction/ Effect of pH on the rate of an enzyme catalysed reaction

  • Introduction

Enzymes are organic molecules comprising of proteins. They are highly specific in the way in which each one catalyses a unique individual reaction. As enzymes are comprised of proteins they can denature if not kept in idyllic conditions, therefore they lose their function thus stopping any reactions (Gomes and Rocha-Santos, 2018). As enzymes are highly specific they each work differently in varying degrees of pH. (Krogdahl et al., 2015) Enzyme catalysed reaction experiments can be extremely important and beneficial, especially in some fields of medical research. Tapper et al., (2017) suggests that elevated liver enzymes within a patient can indicate detection of a wide variety of liver diseases. With the use of enzyme catalysed reaction experiments, several different tests to determine which type of disease is present can be done all at once. This is a more efficient and affordable way to obtain fast results.

 

  • Materials and methods

 

2.1 Part A: Time course of an enzyme catalysed reaction

5 sets of 3 microcentrifuge tubes were firstly labelled A1-E3. The following solutions were then added to each microcentrifuge tube; 0.2 mL distilled water, 0.25 mL sodium acetate buffer solution (pH5.0) and 0.25mL para-nitrophenol phosphate (pNPP) solution. Each tube was then left to equilibrate at room temperature for 5 minutes, then immediately transferred to a water bath of 30  where they were left for a further 5 minutes. 0.05 ml of enzyme was then added to each tube and gently agitated. In order to maintain accurate timings, the enzyme was added to each tube at 1-minute intervals. The times were recorded by a clock timer. The 5 sets of microcentrifuge tubes were incubated for 5, 10, 15, 20 and 30 minutes (i.e. tube sets A1-A3 incubated for 5 minutes, tube sets B1-B3 incubated for 10 minutes etc). At the end of each incubation period the reaction was stopped by adding 0.5 ml sodium carbonate and the tube was then placed back into the test tube rack. Before determining the absorbance of each reaction mixture, a blank solution was prepared by adding the following solutions into a microcentrifuge tube; 0.2 mL water, 0.25 mL sodium acetate buffer, 0.25 mL pNPP, 0.5 mL sodium carbonate and lastly 0.05 mL of enzyme. To determine the rate of absorption the spectrophotometer had to firstly be set to calibrated with the blank solution. The absorbance of each reaction mixture was measured at a wavelength of 410nm. Before the absorbance could be measured by the spectrophotometer, the contents of each microcentrifuge tube were transferred into a low-volume cuvette.

2.2 Part B: Effect of pH on the rate of an enzyme catalysed reaction

The same basic procedures were followed as mentioned before in section 2.1. Although, for this experiment 4 sets of 3 microcentrifuge tubes were used, with each set containing a different pH buffer. There were 4 different pH buffers provided which included; pH 3, pH 5, pH 7 and pH 9. Each of the 4 sets of microcentrifuge tubes were all placed in a water bath at 30  for 10 minutes. Following completion of incubation, the reaction was then stopped by adding 0.5 mL sodium carbonate to each tube.  The incubation period was chosen as 10 minutes sat in the centre of the linear trend line and this was deemed the most accurate choice. The blank used to calibrate the spectrophotometer in part B was prepared in the exact same way as the blank that was used in part A. After calibration of the spectrophotometer, the absorbance of each reaction mixture was again measured at a wavelength of 410nm. The raw data obtained from the spectrophotometer readings was then converted into the amount of pNP produced within 10 minutes. This data was obtained by using equation 1. Equation 2 was then used to convert the data obtained from equation 1 into the rate of pNP produced per minute. A mean average was then taken from this final set of data to be used to plot the graph that is shown in figure 3.

Equation 1 – pNP produced (μmol)= (absorbance @ 410nm-0.0035)/3.1576

 

Equation 2 – rate of reaction (μmol / min)=(amount of pNP (µmol))/(10 (min))

 

  • Results

To begin the results, the pNP calibration data provided in experiment 4A was converted into a graph as shown by figure 1. The equation provided by this first graph was then used to convert the absorbance values that were obtained in experiment 4A into concentration of pNP produced (µmol).

Figure 1

 

Figure 1 – pNP calibration data plotted to obtain equation y = 3.1576x + 0.0035.

This equation was then used to convert the recorded 3 absorption values for each set of 5 into µmol of pNP produced for each different time frame (5 minutes, 10 minutes etc.). A mean average was then taken from the 3 absorbances samples from each set. This mean average was then plotted on the graph shown in figure 2. The graph was used to calculate an accurate incubation time for the samples used in experiment 4B.

Figure 2

 

Figure 2 – Mean averages taken from the three samples recorded for the 5 different sets, plotted against the time each set was incubated for. The standard deviation from all the results recorded for each of the 5 sets was calculated to be used in the form of error bars to indicate accuracy.

It was decided that 10 minutes would be the optimum incubation time for the samples produced in experiment 4B. This decision was made as 10 minutes sits in-between the linear phase. This was deemed appropriate as 5 or 15 minutes may not have been as accurate as the sat at the very beginning and the very end of the linear phase.

Figure 3

Figure 3 –  The rate in which pNP (µmol) is being produced per minute at 4 different levels of pH, including; pH3, pH5, pH7 and pH9. The samples were incubated for an optimum time of 10 minutes in a water bath at 30.

 

  • Discussion

Acid phosphatase hydrolyses phosphate from a variety of molecules which contain a phosphate group (Wang and Liu, 2018). The substrate used within this experiment was para-nitrophenol phosphate (pNPP). When subjected to acid phosphatase, pNPP is hydrolysed to create para-nitrophenol (pNP). Within an alkaline solution pNP can be detected as it turns yellow in colouration (Jez et al., 2016). This is beneficial as the colouration can be assessed with the use of a spectrophotometer to monitor the rate of production of pNP. Production rate of any enzymes relies on specific environments.

Observing figure 3 it is clear to see that the idyllic pH for acid phosphatase to produce pNP is pH 5. As enzymes are acidic in nature it could be assumed that pH 5 would be optimum as acid phosphatase is clearly acidic in nature so would work best in an acidic environment. pH 5 is deemed acidic without it being too harsh that it becomes destructive to the enzyme. It could also be argued that pH 7 would be ineffective as the solution would still be too neutral for a productive enzyme reaction rate. This argument can be supported by Behera et al., (2017) who also carried out an enzyme assay on acid phosphatase. It is stated within this experiment that the optimum acid phosphatase activity was recorded at a temperature of 48 at a pH of 5. However, although the optimum pH for both experiments was deemed pH 5, two different temperatures were used which would have affected both results. Nevertheless, both arguments can be debated as Jennifer et al.,(2015) suggests that the optimum environment for the production of enzymes is pH 9 at a temperature of 40. The comparison of these arguments could propose that further study should be completed to investigate the effects of varying temperatures on the production of enzymes.

Optimal conditions are essential for enzyme production. A change in environment can cause an enzyme to denature, thus meaning they stop functioning, which will result in a stop of production. (Saoudi et al., 2017) Denaturation is the process in which an enzyme will undergo threatening and even destroying structural change. Although enzymes are subject to structural damage, no reaction would be strong enough to break the peptide bonds between amino acids, so the enzymes primary structure would remain unchanged (Cheng et al., 2015). As the process of denaturation causes the enzyme to change structure, this then means that the specific substrate matched with that enzyme can no longer bind as the active sight region has been impaired resulting in the substrate and enzyme no longer being a match (Witkowska et al., 2018).

 

  • Conclusion

To conclude, the production rate of pNP was measured over numerous lengths of time to investigate the most productive time span for pNP production. This information was then used to evaluate the best incubation time for the solutions used with varying degrees of pH. The experiment deemed that pH 5 was the optimum environment for pNP production. Literature suggests that this is due to the enzyme working well within an acidic environment because it itself is acidic in structure, although the pH concentration wasn’t too acidic that it would cause any structural damage to the enzyme, causing it to denature.

 

 

 

 

References

Behera, B. C., Yadav, H., Singh, S. K., Mishra, R. R., Sethi, B. K., Dutta, S. K. and Thatoi, H. N. (2017) ‘Phosphate solubilization and acid phosphatase activity of Serratia sp. isolated from mangrove soil of Mahanadi river delta, Odisha, India.’ Journal of Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology, 15(1) pp. 169–178.

Cheng, B., Wu, S., Liu, S., Rodriguez-Aliaga, P., Yu, J. and Cui, S. (2015) ‘Protein denaturation at a single-molecule level: the effect of nonpolar environments and its implications on the unfolding mechanism by proteases.’ Nanoscale, 7(7) pp. 2970–2977.

Gomes, A. R. and Rocha-Santos, T. A. P. (2018) ‘Enzyme Assays☆.’ In Reference Module in Chemistry, Molecular Sciences and Chemical Engineering. Elsevier.

Jennifer, E. B. M., Sathishkumar, R. and Ananthan, G. (2015) ‘Screening of extracellular hydrolytic enzymes production by ascidians (Polyclinum glabrum, Microcosmus exasperates and Phallusia arabica) associated bacteria from Tuticorin, Southeast coast of India.’

Jez, J. M., Ravilious, G. E. and Herrmann, J. (2016) ‘Structural biology and regulation of the plant sulfation pathway.’ Chemico-Biological Interactions. (Special Issue on Sulfation Pathways), 259, November, pp. 31–38.

Krogdahl, Å., Sundby, A. and Holm, H. (2015) ‘Characteristics of digestive processes in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar). Enzyme pH optima, chyme pH, and enzyme activities.’ Aquaculture. (Proceedings of the 16th International Symposium on Fish Nutrition and Feeding), 449, December, pp. 27–36.

Saoudi, O., Ghaouar, N., Ben Salah, S. and Othman, T. (2017) ‘Denaturation process of laccase in various media by refractive index measurements.’ Biochemistry and Biophysics Reports, 11, September, pp. 19–26.

Tapper, E. B., Saini, S. D. and Sengupta, N. (2017) ‘Extensive testing or focused testing of patients with elevated liver enzymes.’ Journal of Hepatology, 66(2) pp. 313–319.

Wang, L. and Liu, D. (2018) ‘Functions and regulation of phosphate starvation-induced secreted acid phosphatases in higher plants.’ Plant Science, 271, June, pp. 108–116.

Witkowska, D., Cox, H. L., Hall, T. C., Wildsmith, G. C., Machin, D. C. and Webb, M. E. (2018) ‘Analysis of substrate binding in individual active sites of bifunctional human ATIC.’ Biochimica et Biophysica Acta (BBA) – Proteins and Proteomics, 1866(2) pp. 254–263.

 

Osmosis

Water is essential for the survival of all living beings. But, the input and output of water entering the body’s cells must be regulated. This regulation of water is known as Osmosis. Osmosis consists of a solvent and a solution, for example pure water and salt water, being separated by a semi- permeable membrane. This semi – permeable membrane allows water molecules to flow through freely from any direction, whereas the salt molecules will not be able to pass through the membrane as they are too large. Water will always move from the side with the highest water concentration to the side with the lowest water concentration, this is to equalise the concentration of constituents on both sides of the membrane. (Borg, 2017). Osmosis is known as a special type of diffusion. Osmosis is needed within animals as it keeps the water input and output within the body regulated, but osmosis itself also must be regulated. This is known as osmoregulation. Osmoregulation is responsible for monitoring the physiological processes to help maintain a concentrated balance of the body fluids inside and outside the cell. (Osmoregulation – an overview | ScienceDirect Topics, n.d.)

Water can enter the body in a variety of different ways for example; drinking, eating and living in an aquatic environment. As water can enter the body, it can also be lost from the body through; urine, faeces, vomit, lactation etc. Species have evolved over time to keep their cells alive through osmosis and osmoregulation. For example, marine fish are hypotonic to their environment. This means that their body fluids contain more water molecules and less solute molecules in comparison to their environment, which is sea water. (BioBook | Leaf: Why is osmosis so important in biology?, n.d.) If marine fish had not evolved and adapted to their environment, their cells would burst due to swelling after taking in too much water. Baldisserotto et al.,( 2007) states that as marine fish are hypotonic to their environment and lose a lot of water, they counteract this by engulfing sea water. 60-85% of this seawater is then absorbed by the intestine. The oesophagus of marine fish absorbs a lot of the salt, but it is almost impermeable to water. This makes the salt level of the water in the intestine much lower, resulting in more water and less salt being absorbed by the intestine and excess salt being excreted in any small amounts of urine that is produced. This is an adaptation that has been developed by marine fish to respond to water lose due to their environment.

On the other side of this example, there are also species that are hypertonic to their environment, such as fresh water fish. This means that the cells have a higher salt concentrations than the surrounding environment. (BioBook | Leaf: Why is osmosis so important in biology?, n.d.) Fresh water fish are opposite to marine fish so they take in water as their cells are constantly losing water. If the fish did not take in this extra water their cells would shrink up and die. (Garrey, 1916).

Terrestrial animals have numerous ways of conserving water though osmosis, such as waterproof skin, feathers fur etc. One of the more advanced adaptations for conserving water is the kidneys. The Loop of Henle resides within each nephron within the kidneys. It consists of a descending limb and an ascending limb. The descending limb is impermeable to solvents, but water can move around freely, this is where the water is absorbed back into the cells. Due to the absorption of water in the descending limb previously, it results in the filtrate in the ascending limb to become concentrated. Within the ascending limb, some solvents are reabsorbed but it is moderately impermeable to water. Any extra waste is then transported to the bladder and excreted as concentrated urine. The more dehydrated the animal is the more concentred the urine becomes. (Regulation of Water Balance, n.d.)

In summary, the evidence shown within this report reflects osmosis as a necessity for life within a whole organism. Species and cells have developed over time so that their bodies can remain hydrated in the most efficient way possible. Osmosis can be displayed differently throughout a variety of species, all with their own similar yet vastly different adaptations.

 

References

Baldisserotto, B., Mancera Romero, J. M. and Kapoor, B. G. (eds) (2007) Fish osmoregulation. Enfield, N.H: Science Publishers.

BioBook | Leaf: Why is osmosis so important in biology? (n.d.). [Online] [Accessed on 3rd December 2017] https://adapaproject.org/bbk_temp/tiki-index.php?page=Leaf%3A+Why+is+osmosis+so+important+in+biology%3F.

Borg, F. (2017) ‘What is Osmosis? Explanation and Understanding of a Physical Phenomenon.’

Garrey, W. E. (1916) ‘The Resistance of Fresh Water Fish to Changes of Osmotic and Chemical Conditions.’ American Journal of Physiology — Legacy Content, 39(3) pp. 313–329.

Osmoregulation – an overview | ScienceDirect Topics (n.d.). [Online] [Accessed on 2nd December 2017] https://www.sciencedirect.com/topics/neuroscience/osmoregulation.

Regulation of Water Balance (n.d.). [Online] [Accessed on 5th December 2017] https://courses.washington.edu/conj/bess/water/water.htm.

Concepts in molecular biology – failures in meiosis which could resulting in chromosomal disease

Meiosis is a cell division process in which haploid gamete cells are produced in a diploid organism. A diploid organism is an organism which has homologous copies of each parent chromosomes within their cells. The parents of the offspring each donate a set of chromosomes which will then equal to two sets (Xu, 2006). Humans have 46 chromosomes within their diploid cells, compared to the 23 chromosomes which can be found within haploid cells. Haploid cells can be found within the gametes of diploid organisms, otherwise known as the sperm and ovum cells or reproductive cells. Haploid cells only have one set of chromosomes because when two parent haploid cells come together, they become fertilised. This means that the offspring will gain a complete set of chromosomes and become a diploid cell or diploid organism. (Kent, 2013).

Meiosis is an incredibly significant process for maintaining life itself. MacLennan (2015) states that meiosis is essential as it allows for the reduction of chromosomes within the gamete cells to maintain the correct number of chromosomes within the offspring after fertilisation. This is to reduce chromosomal disease and maintain genetic diversity within a species. Meiosis creates genetic diversity by recombining the chromosomes genetic material. Genetic variation is then increased further when the two parent gametes come together during fertilisation, there by creating an offspring with unique DNA combinations. (Humphryes and Hochwagen, 2014).

There are two consecutive divisions that take place during meiosis and the result of the processes of meiosis is the production of four haploid daughter cells. These cells that are produced are genetically different from their parent cells and the four cells that are produced are even genetically different from each other. This is because during meiosis, a pair of homologous chromosomes can exchange genetic material before being separated. (Kent, 2013). Meiosis firstly begins with Interphase. During interphase the chromosomes and organelles within a cell begin to duplicate. This results in each chromosome consisting of two daughter chromatids. (Simon et al., 2013). Interphase is also used to store energy as ATP (Adenosine Triphosphate) which can then later be used during the meiosis process. (Kent, 2013).

The process then moves on to Prophase 1. This stage consumes around 90% of the division time as it is an extremely complex stage. During Prophase 1 the chromosomes begin to condense, the nuclear envelope disintegrates, and the spindle apparatus starts to appear. (Kent, 2013). As the chromosomes begin to condense and coil up, proteins cause the homologous chromosomes to draw together and form pairs. The results of this are structures consisting of four chromatids. Within each structure, chromatids start to swap corresponding segments. This is also known as “crossing-over”. The process of crossing over means that the genetic information present is then rearranged. This is how the cells that are produced become genetically different from their parent cells, and each other. (Simon et al., 2013).

The next step is Metaphase 1. During this stage the homologous chromosome pairs begin to line up along the equator of the cell. Spindle microtubules from one pole attach to the centromere of one chromosome, and spindle microtubules from the other pole attach to the centromere of the chromosome’s homologous pair. The centromere does not divide so the sister chromatids remain together. (Kent, 2013).

The homologous chromosomes begin to separate and migrate towards the opposite poles in which they were attached to. (Kent, 2013).  The chromosomes are separated from their homologous partners, but the sister chromatids move as a single component. (Simon et al., 2013). This process is known as Anaphase 1.

The final stage of meiosis 1 is Telophase 1 and Cytokinesis. The chromosomes finally arrive at the poles of the cell. Once they arrive each pole consists of a set of haploid chromosomes, but the chromosomes are still doubled. Cytokinesis coincides with Telophase 1 and two haploid cells are produced. (Simon et al., 2013).

The process of Meiosis 2 results in the separation of the sister chromatids pairs that were separated from their homologous pairs in Meiosis 1. Meiosis 2 begins with a haploid cell that has not undertaken duplication of chromosomes during the Interphase period. This process is considerably similar to that of Meiosis 1. (Kent, 2013). A spindle forms during Prophase 2 which pushes the chromosomes into the centre of the cell. During Metaphase 2 the chromosomes align, with spindle microtubules from opposite poles attaching to the sister chromatids of each chromosome. The centromeres of the sister chromatids separate during Anaphase 2, and the sister chromatids of each pair begin to migrate towards the opposite poles. Finally, in Telophase 2 nuclei begin to form at the poles. Cytokinesis also occurs at this time, and the final result is four haploid daughter cells, each consisting of single chromosomes. (Simon et al., 2013).

The meiotic cell division process does not always run its course perfectly. When things go wrong during meiosis, the effects can be projected through chromosomal disease. Chromosomal disease can be fatal to an embryo. Qi et al, (2018) shows that during their study 42.95% of embryo miscarriage samples, out of 149 samples, all contained at least one chromosomal abnormality. Not all cases of chromosomal abnormalities are fatal, but there are a variety of problems that can occur. Errors in meiosis are referred to as nondisjunction. This means that during the meiotic cell division phase either the homologous chromosomes or sister chromatids failed to separate properly.  Turner Syndrome is a condition that affects around 1 in every 2,500 female babies. The condition means that these female babies are born with only one X chromosome. Normally females are born with two X chromosomes. Because these females are lacking the second X chromosome, their ovaries normally degenerate before they are even born. This means that the females can not undergo puberty. The condition can be treated to an extent by providing oestrogen as a hormone treatment, these would stimulate secondary sexual characteristics such as enlarged breasts, but because the females do not have functioning ovaries they still would not be able to produce offspring. Other characteristics of Turner Syndrome can include; increased risks of cardiovascular disease, kidney defects and hearing loss. (Audesirk et al., 2017)

Another common chromosomal abnormality is Trisomy 21, or Down Syndrome. Trisomy 21 is a condition where by the offspring has accumulated an extra copy of chromosome 21. Children that are born with Trisomy 21 usually have very distinctive physical abnormalities. Some of these can include; a smaller mouth that can only open partially to try and accommodate for a much larger tongue, weak muscle tone and distinctive eye shape. These characteristics also go along side some degree of cognitive impairment (depending on the person) and learning difficulties. Over the years there has been an improvement of health and life longevity for people who suffer from Trisomy 21, but this increase in life longevity has also been linked to the rise in people with Trisomy 21 suffering from Alzheimer’s disease as they get older. Chromosomal abnormalities such as Trisomy 21, occur during meiotic cell division. Abnormalities can occur due to increased maternal age (Prenatal screening for Trisomy 21 is usually advised for mothers over the age of 35) but this isn’t always the case as babies who suffer from this condition have been born to mothers under the age of 35. (Diamandopoulos and Green, 2018).

In conclusion meiosis is vital for life to continue and succeed. Without the success of meiosis every species of living diploid organism would eventually become extinct, as organisms would not be able to further reproduce as a result of haploid gamete cells not being produced. Gamete cell production is essential for the natural continuation of a species. Although meiosis is vital for reproduction, it is also essential for genetic variability. Genetic variability allows new organisms to be produced with a completely unique set of DNA. Without genetic variability the risk of chromosomal disease can be much higher. But, chromosomal disease can occur in any new offspring, even with genetic variability present within their parents. With this in mind, chromosomal disease should continue to be researched to understand more as to why failures in meiosis can arise.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

References

Audesirk, T., Audesirk, G. and Byers, B. E. (2017) Biology Life on Earth. Eleventh.

Diamandopoulos, K. and Green, J. (2018) ‘Down syndrome: An integrative review.’ Journal of Neonatal Nursing, February.

Humphryes, N. and Hochwagen, A. (2014) ‘A non-sister act: Recombination template choice during meiosis.’ Experimental Cell Research. (DNA DAMAGE AND REPAIR), 329(1) pp. 53–60.

Kent, M. (2013) Advanced Biology. 2nd ed.

MacLennan, M., Crichton, J. H., Playfoot, C. J. and Adams, I. R. (2015) ‘Oocyte development, meiosis and aneuploidy.’ Seminars in Cell & Developmental Biology. (Plasma membrane repair & Development and pathology of the gonad), 45, September, pp. 68–76.

Qi, H., Xuan, Z.-L., Du, Y., Cai, L.-R., Zhang, H., Wen, X.-H., Kong, X.-D., Yang, K., Mi, Y., Fu, X.-X., Cao, S.-B., Wang, J., Chen, C.-J. and Liang, J.-B. (2018) ‘High resolution global chromosomal aberrations from spontaneous miscarriages revealed by low coverage whole genome sequencing.’ European Journal of Obstetrics & Gynecology and Reproductive Biology, 224, May, pp. 21–28.

Simon, E. J., Dickey, J. L. and Reece, J. B. (2013) Campbell Essential Biology. Fifth.

Xu, J. (2006) ‘Extracting haplotypes from diploid organisms.’ Current issues in molecular biology, 8(2) p. 113.

Professional practice, Task D – data handling reflection

During first year at university I have already gained a respectable amount of knowledge through the subjects I have been taught but I have also gained a reasonable amount of applicable skills. The ability to self-reflect has been a very accountable skill that I have gained. Self-reflection gives me the opportunity to look back to the beginning of the year and see how far I have progressed. It also allows me to identify my weaknesses, making me aware of the areas that I need to improve on if I want to be able to better myself for second year and further.

Assessing the grade I achieved from the sector studies exam indicates that there are a variety of areas that I need to improve on in order to better my studies. Comparing the mock that was completed prior to the exam, to the exam itself, I can determine that I struggled with several maths questions. In both the mock exam and the official exam I failed to complete questions referring to graphs. Pareja-Lora et al., (2016) states that mock exams are incredibly useful not just for revision purposes but to highlight strengths and weaknesses to help aid student development. Mock exams give students the opportunity to reflect on their results and gain feedback from their teachers to help develop any weaker skills. With this in mind, I should have engaged with my teacher and asked if it could have been possible for me to go over the graph question and other questions I didn’t quite understand. This would have allowed me to advance my maths skills and may have allowed me to obtain a higher grade. This argument can be developed further by Zhang and Hyland (2018) who proclaim that students who actively ask for teacher feedback gain better understanding and retention of information within that subject.

Referring to the self-reflective task that was completed at the beginning of the year, I refer to use of Self Directed Learning being a useful tool for improving skills “One way of working on a classroom flaw or struggle is to undertake Self Directed Learning (SDL)”. I still stand by this statement as SDL is extremely beneficial to students, as it involves integrity to address weaker areas of study and enables students to take extra time to work on said areas through a variety of different activities. The engagement of SDL activities leads to improved educational results for students (Kastenmeier et al., 2018). SDL can also be considered a form of continuing professional development (CPD). CPD is the act of an individual taking control of their own learning and career development. This is usually done through the act of reflection and action. If an individual has highlighted areas of improvement, they will then take action and physically do something to improve their learning i.e. courses, conferences, outside reading, work experience etc. (Megginson and Whitaker, 2017) This argument is continued further by Wareing et al.,(2017) who suggests that the act of CPD is not only beneficial to the individual, but to anyone who is involved with said individuals work. This could include, working peers, customers, patients etc depending at the career within questions.

To conclude I aim to develop myself further through the suggestions listed above. Within development I may not see a progressive change in my grades and skills set as I move into my second year. Although, these skills are not just confined to grades within university. The can be carried with me throughout my career as their will always be room for improvement and developed in whatever career path I choose.

 

 

 

 

References

Kastenmeier, A. S., Redlich, P. N., Fihn, C., Treat, R., Chou, R., Homel, A. and Lewis, B. D. (2018) ‘Individual learning plans foster self-directed learning skills and contribute to improved educational outcomes in the surgery clerkship.’ The American Journal of Surgery, January.

Megginson, D. and Whitaker, V. (2017) Continuing Professional Development. Kogan Page Publishers.

Pareja-Lora, A., Calle-Martínez, C. and Rodríguez-Arancón, P. (2016) New perspectives on teaching and working with languages in the digital era. Research-publishing.net.

Wareing, A., Buissink, C., Harper, D., Gellert Olesen, M., Soto, M., Braico, S., Van Laer, P., Gremion, I. and Rainford, L. (2017) ‘Continuing professional development (CPD) in radiography: A collaborative European meta-ethnography literature review.’ Radiography. (Radiography Education), 23, September, pp. S58–S63.

Zhang, Z. (Victor) and Hyland, K. (2018) ‘Student engagement with teacher and automated feedback on L2 writing.’ Assessing Writing. (Special Issue: The comparability of paper-based and computer-based writing: Process and performance), 36, April, pp. 90–102.